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#top #top Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna), a medium-sized hummingbird native to the west coast of North America, was named after Anna Masséna, Duchess of Rivoli. In the early 20th century, Anna's hummingbird bred only in northern Baja California and southern California. The transplanting of exotic ornamental plants in residential areas throughout the Pacific coast and inland deserts provided expanded nectar and nesting sites, allowing the species to more extensively expand its breeding range. These birds feed on nectar from flowers using a long extendable tongue. They also consume small insects and other arthropods caught in flight or gleaned from vegetation.  They aim for the flying insect, then open their beaks to capture the prey. Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna), a medium-sized hummingbird native to the west coast of North America, was named after Anna Masséna, Duchess of Rivoli. In the early 20th century, Anna's hummingbird bred only in northern Baja California and southern California. The transplanting of exotic ornamental plants in residential areas throughout the Pacific coast and inland deserts provided expanded nectar and nesting sites, allowing the species to more extensively expand its breeding range. The berylline hummingbird (Amazilia beryllina) sometimes placed in the genus Saucerottia, is a medium-sized hummingbird. It is 8–10 cm long, and weighs 4-5 g. Adults are colored predominantly metallic olive green with a rusty gray lower belly. The tail and primary wings are rufous in color and slightly forked. The underwing is also rufous. The bill of the male is straight and very slender. It is very dark red in coloration, almost black. The female is less colorful than the male. The breeding habitat is in forests and thickets of western Mexico to central Honduras in Central America. It regularly strays to southeasternmost Arizona in the United States where it occasionally breeds–(the Madrean sky islands). The female builds a nest in a protected location in a shrub or tree. Females lay two white eggs. This hummingbird is essentially non-migratory. These birds feed on nectar from flowers and flowering trees using a long extendable tongue or catch insects on the wing. The berylline hummingbird (Amazilia beryllina) sometimes placed in the genus Saucerottia, is a medium-sized hummingbird. It is 8–10 cm long, and weighs 4-5 g. Adults are colored predominantly metallic olive green with a rusty gray lower belly. The tail and primary wings are rufous in color and slightly forked. The underwing is also rufous. The bill of the male is straight and very slender. It is very dark red in coloration, almost black. The female is less colorful than the male. The breeding habitat is in forests and thickets of western Mexico to central Honduras in Central America. It regularly strays to southeasternmost Arizona in the United States where it occasionally breeds–(the Madrean sky islands). The female builds a nest in a protected location in a shrub or tree. Females lay two white eggs. This hummingbird is essentially non-migratory. These birds feed on nectar from flowers and flowering trees using a long extendable tongue or catch insects on the wing. The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is a species that generally spends the Winter in Central America and migrates to Eastern North America for the Summer to breed. It is by far the most common hummingbird seen east of the Mississippi River in North America. Adults are metallic green above and greyish white below, with near-black wings. Their bill, at up to 2 cm (0.79 in), is long, straight, and very slender. As in all hummingbirds, the toes and feet of this species are quite small, with a middle toe of around 0.6 cm (0.24 in) and a tarsus of approximately 0.4 cm (0.16 in). The ruby-throated hummingbird can only shuffle if it wants to move along a branch, though it can scratch its head and neck with its feet. The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is a species that generally spends the Winter in Central America and migrates to Eastern North America for the Summer to breed. It is by far the most common hummingbird seen east of the Mississippi River in North America. Adults are metallic green above and greyish white below, with near-black wings. Their bill, at up to 2 cm (0.79 in), is long, straight, and very slender. As in all hummingbirds, the toes and feet of this species are quite small, with a middle toe of around 0.6 cm (0.24 in) and a tarsus of approximately 0.4 cm (0.16 in). The ruby-throated hummingbird can only shuffle if it wants to move along a branch, though it can scratch its head and neck with its feet. The broad-billed hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) is a medium-sized hummingbird of North America. It is 9–10 cm long, and weighs approximately three to four grams. The breeding habitat is in arid scrub of the Sonoran Desert-Chihuahuan Desert ecotone and the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona and extreme southwestern New Mexico of the Southwestern United States and northern Sonora of Northwestern Mexico. Outside its breeding range, it will occasionally stray, from southernmost California to Texas and Louisiana. Adults are colored predominantly a metallic green on their upperparts and breast. The undertail coverts are predominantly white. The tail is darkly colored and slightly forked. The bill of the male is straight and very slender. It is red in coloration, and shows a black tip. His throat is a deep blue. The female is less colorful than the male. She usually shows a white eye stripe. The female builds a nest in a protected location in a shrub or tree. Females lay two white eggs. The calliope hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope) is a very small hummingbird native to the United States and Canada and, during winter, Central America. It was previously considered the only member of the genus Stellula, but recent evidence suggests placement in the genus Selasphorus. This bird was named after the Greek muse Calliope. The former genus name means "little star". This is the smallest breeding bird found in Canada and the United States. The only smaller species ever found in the U.S. is the bumblebee hummingbird, an accidental vagrant from Mexico. An adult calliope hummingbird can measure 7–10 cm (2.8–3.9 in) in length, span 11 cm (4.3 in) across the wings and weigh 2 to 3 g (0.071 to 0.106 oz). These birds have glossy green on the back and crown with white underparts. Their bill and tail are relatively short. The broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) is a medium-sized hummingbird, nearly 4 in (10 cm) in length. It is one of seven species in the genus Selasphorus. Male and female both have iridescent green backs and crowns and a white breast. The male has a gorget (throat patch) that shines with a brilliant pink-red iridescence and a broad, predominantly black tail accented with varying amounts of green, rufous, and occasionally white. The female is much duller with pale rust-colored sides and outer tail feathers banded in rufous, green, black, and white. In flight the male's wings produce a distinct trilling sound diagnostic for this species. The summer range of the broad-tailed hummingbird extends across mountain forests and meadows throughout the Western United States, specifically the central Rocky Mountain region and southwards; the resident birds range from the cordilleran mountain areas of northern Mexico as far south as Guatemala. This species is very small, a mature adult growing to only 3–3.5 in (7.6–8.9 cm) in length. The male Costa's has a mainly green back and flanks, a small black tail and wings, and patches of white below their gorgeted throat and tail. Its most distinguishing feature is its vibrant purple cap and throat with the throat feathers flaring out and back behind its head. The female Costa's hummingbird is not as distinct as the male, having grayish-green above with a white underbelly. Costa's hummingbird is fairly common in the arid brushy deserts and any nearby gardens of the Southwestern United States and the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The male Costa's hummingbird's courtship display is a spirited series of swoops and arcing dives, carefully utilizing a proper angle to the sun to show off his violet plumage to impress prospective mates. Each high-speed dive will also pass within inches of the female, perched on a nearby branch, which will be accented by a high-pitched shriek that is produced by the tail. The Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird, about 3 inches long with a long, straight and slender bill. These birds are known for their extraordinary flight skills, flying 2,000 mi during their migratory transits. It is one of seven species in the genus Selasphorus. The adult male has a white breast, rufous face, flanks and tail and an iridescent orange-red throat patch or gorget. Some males have some green on back and/or crown. The female has green, white, some iridescent orange feathers in the center of the throat, and a dark tail with white tips and rufous base. They feed on nectar from flowers using a long extendable tongue or catch insects on the wing. These birds require frequent feeding while active during the day and become torpid at night to conserve energy. Because of their small size, they are vulnerable to insect-eating birds and animals. The Costa's hummingbird (Calypte costae) species is very small, a mature adult growing to only 3–3.5 in length. The male Costa's has a mainly green back and flanks, a small black tail and wings, and patches of white below their gorgeted throat and tail. Its most distinguishing feature is its vibrant purple cap and throat with the throat feathers flaring out and back behind its head. The female Costa's hummingbird is not as distinct as the male, having grayish-green above with a white underbelly. The male Costa's hummingbird's courtship display is a spirited series of swoops and arcing dives, carefully utilizing a proper angle to the sun to show off his violet plumage to impress prospective mates. Each high-speed dive will also pass within inches of the female, perched on a nearby branch, which will be accented by a high-pitched shriek that is produced by the tail. Separately, the male will perch and produce similar sounds in his song-- except, the song is vocal rather than tail-generated. The Costa's hummingbird (Calypte costae) species is very small, a mature adult growing to only 3–3.5 in length. The male Costa's has a mainly green back and flanks, a small black tail and wings, and patches of white below their gorgeted throat and tail. Its most distinguishing feature is its vibrant purple cap and throat with the throat feathers flaring out and back behind its head. The female Costa's hummingbird is not as distinct as the male, having grayish-green above with a white underbelly. The male Costa's hummingbird's courtship display is a spirited series of swoops and arcing dives, carefully utilizing a proper angle to the sun to show off his violet plumage to impress prospective mates. Each high-speed dive will also pass within inches of the female, perched on a nearby branch, which will be accented by a high-pitched shriek that is produced by the tail. Separately, the male will perch and produce similar sounds in his song-- except, the song is vocal rather than tail-generated. The magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens) is a large hummingbird. The species ranges 4.3–5.5 inches in length and weighs from 0.21 to 0.35 oz, with males typically a little larger than females. Of the hummingbirds found in the United States, the magnificent hummingbird is one of the two largest species being rivaled only by the blue-throated hummingbird. In the southern reaches of its range, the magnificent may co-exist with other hummingbird species of comparable or slightly larger size. The black bill is long and straight to slightly curved. Both sexes look very dark unless the sun catches the iridescence of the plumage and the brilliant colours flash in the sunlight. The female is entirely responsible for nest building and incubation. She lays two white eggs in her bulky cup nest about 3 metres up near the tip of a descending branch stem. Incubation takes 15–19 days, and fledging another 20–26. The food of this species is nectar, taken from a variety of flowers, and some small insects. The magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens) is a large hummingbird. The species ranges 4.3–5.5 inches in length and weighs from 0.21 to 0.35 oz, with males typically a little larger than females. Of the hummingbirds found in the United States, the magnificent hummingbird is one of the two largest species being rivaled only by the blue-throated hummingbird. In the southern reaches of its range, the magnificent may co-exist with other hummingbird species of comparable or slightly larger size. The black bill is long and straight to slightly curved. Both sexes look very dark unless the sun catches the iridescence of the plumage and the brilliant colours flash in the sunlight. The female is entirely responsible for nest building and incubation. She lays two white eggs in her bulky cup nest about 3 metres up near the tip of a descending branch stem. Incubation takes 15–19 days, and fledging another 20–26. The food of this species is nectar, taken from a variety of flowers, and some small insects. Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna), a medium-sized hummingbird native to the west coast of North America, was named after Anna Masséna, Duchess of Rivoli. In the early 20th century, Anna's hummingbird bred only in northern Baja California and southern California. The transplanting of exotic ornamental plants in residential areas throughout the Pacific coast and inland deserts provided expanded nectar and nesting sites, allowing the species to more extensively expand its breeding range. These birds feed on nectar from flowers using a long extendable tongue. They also consume small insects and other arthropods caught in flight or gleaned from vegetation.  They aim for the flying insect, then open their beaks to capture the prey. The Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) is a small hummingbird, about 3.1 inches long with a long, straight and slender bill. These birds are known for their extraordinary flight skills, flying 2,000 mi (3,200 km) during their migratory transits. It is one of seven species in the genus Selasphorus. The adult male has a white breast, rufous face, flanks and tail and an iridescent orange-red throat patch or gorget. Some males have some green on back and/or crown. The female has green, white, some iridescent orange feathers in the center of the throat, and a dark tail with white tips and rufous base. The female is slightly larger than the male. Females and the rare green-backed males are extremely difficult to differentiate from Allen's hummingbird. They feed on nectar from flowers using a long extendable tongue or catch insects on the wing. These birds require frequent feeding while active during the day and become torpid at night to conserve energy. The black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) is a small hummingbird. It is an extremely adaptable bird, occupying a broad range of habitats. This hummingbird is 3.25 inches long. Adults are metallic green above and white below with green flanks. Their bill is long, straight and very slender. The adult male has a black face and chin, a glossy purple throat band and a dark forked tail. The female has a dark rounded tail with white tips and no throat patch; they are similar to female ruby-throated hummingbirds. Juvenile plumage is similar to that of adult females, but with buff margins on the dorsal feathers. Juvenile males may also possess purple feathers on their throats. Young are born almost featherless, but obtain a complete set of feathers within three weeks of hatching. Juveniles can begin replacing their plumage in November, and acquire their first basic plumage between April and May. Molts will then occur annually, taking 7–8 months at the population level. Allen's hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin) is a species of hummingbird. It is a small bird, with mature adults reaching only 3 to 3.5 inches in length. The male has a green back and forehead, with rust-colored rufous flanks, rump, and tail. The male's throat is also an iridescent orange-red. The female and immature Allen's hummingbirds are similarly colored, but lack the iridescent throat patch, instead having a series of speckles on their throats. Females are mostly green, featuring rufous color only on the tail, which also has white tips. Immature Allen's hummingbirds are so similar to the female rufous hummingbird, the two are almost indistinguishable in the field. The male is highly aggressive and territorial. Hot-tempered despite its diminutive stature, male Allen's hummingbirds will chase any other males from their territory, as well as any other hummingbird species, and have even been known to attack and rout predatory birds several times larger than themselves, such as kestrels and hawks. The blue-throated mountaingem, also known as the blue-throated mountain-gem or blue-throated hummingbird (Lampornis clemenciae) is a species of hummingbird, a member of the Trochilidae family of birds. The Blue-throated mountaingem is a fairly large hummingbird, reaching 4.5 to 4.9 inches in length and 6 to 10 grams in weight. The Blue-throated Hummingbird is dull green on the top of its body, fading to medium gray on its belly. It has a conspicuous white stripe behind its eye and a narrower stripe extending backward from the corner of its bill, bordering a blackish cheek patch. Its tail feathers are iridescent blue-black with broad white tips on the outer two to three pairs. The species gets its name from the adult male's iridescent blue throat patch (gorget), but the female lacks this, having a plain gray throat. The black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) is a small hummingbird. It is an extremely adaptable bird, occupying a broad range of habitats. This hummingbird is 3.25 inches long. Adults are metallic green above and white below with green flanks. Their bill is long, straight and very slender. The adult male has a black face and chin, a glossy purple throat band and a dark forked tail. The female has a dark rounded tail with white tips and no throat patch; they are similar to female ruby-throated hummingbirds. Juvenile plumage is similar to that of adult females, but with buff margins on the dorsal feathers. Juvenile males may also possess purple feathers on their throats. Young are born almost featherless, but obtain a complete set of feathers within three weeks of hatching. Juveniles can begin replacing their plumage in November, and acquire their first basic plumage between April and May. Molts will then occur annually, taking 7–8 months at the population level. Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna), a medium-sized hummingbird native to the west coast of North America, was named after Anna Masséna, Duchess of Rivoli. In the early 20th century, Anna's hummingbird bred only in northern Baja California and southern California. The transplanting of exotic ornamental plants in residential areas throughout the Pacific coast and inland deserts provided expanded nectar and nesting sites, allowing the species to more extensively expand its breeding range. These birds feed on nectar from flowers using a long extendable tongue. They also consume small insects and other arthropods caught in flight or gleaned from vegetation.  They aim for the flying insect, then open their beaks to capture the prey. The broad-billed hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris) is a medium-sized hummingbird of North America. It is 9–10 cm long, and weighs approximately three to four grams. The breeding habitat is in arid scrub of the Sonoran Desert-Chihuahuan Desert ecotone and the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona and extreme southwestern New Mexico of the Southwestern United States and northern Sonora of Northwestern Mexico. Outside its breeding range, it will occasionally stray, from southernmost California to Texas and Louisiana. Adults are colored predominantly a metallic green on their upperparts and breast. The undertail coverts are predominantly white. The tail is darkly colored and slightly forked. The bill of the male is straight and very slender. It is red in coloration, and shows a black tip. His throat is a deep blue. The female is less colorful than the male. She usually shows a white eye stripe. The female builds a nest in a protected location in a shrub or tree. Females lay two white eggs. The blue grosbeak (Passerina caerulea, formerly Guiraca caerulea), is a medium-sized seed-eating bird in the same family as the northern cardinal, "tropical" or New World buntings, and "cardinal-grosbeaks" or New World grosbeaks. The male blue grosbeak is a beautiful bird, being almost entirely deep blue. The female is mostly brown. Both sexes are distinguished by their large, deep bill and double wing bars. These features, as well as the grosbeak's relatively larger size, distinguish this species from the indigo bunting. This is a migratory bird, with nesting grounds across most of the southern half of the United States and much of northern Mexico, migrating south to Central America and in very small numbers to northern South America; the southernmost record comes from eastern Ecuador. It eats mostly insects, but it will also eat snails, spiders, seeds, grains, and wild fruits. The blue grosbeak forages on the ground and in shrubs and trees. The cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) is a species of wren that is native to the southwestern United States southwards to central Mexico. The cactus wren primarily eats insects, including ants, beetles, grasshoppers, and wasps. It is a bird of arid regions, and is often found around yucca, mesquite or saguaro; it nests in cactus plants, sometimes in a hole in a saguaro, sometimes where its nest will be protected by the prickly cactus spines of a cholla or leaves of a yucca. The cactus wren forms permanent pair bonds, and the pairs defend a territory where they live all through the year. In residential areas, cactus wrens are notorious for getting into mischief. Being curious birds, it is not uncommon for these wrens to be found flying about out-of-place in automobiles where the owner has left a window open or it may even enter homes with an open door or window and find itself trapped. The cactus wren is the state bird of Arizona. Cooper's hawk was first described by French naturalist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1828. It is a member of the goshawk genus Accipiter. This bird was named after the naturalist William Cooper, one of the founders of the New York Lyceum of Natural History (later the New York Academy of Sciences) in New York. Other common names; big blue darter, chicken hawk, hen hawk, Mexican hawk, quail hawk, striker and swift hawk. Adults have red eyes and have a black cap, with blue-gray upper parts and white underparts with fine, thin, reddish bars. Their tail is blue-gray on top and pale underneath, barred with black bands. Their breeding range extends from southern Canada to northern Mexico. They are generally distributed more to the south than the other North American accipiters, the sharp-shinned hawk and the northern goshawk. The Cooper's hawks are monogamous, but most do not mate for life. Pairs will breed once a year and raise one brood per breeding season. The curve-billed thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre) is a medium-sized mimid that is a member of the genus Toxostoma, native to the southwestern United States and much of Mexico. Referred to as the default desert bird, it is a non-migratory species. The curve-billed thrasher is commonly found throughout the southwestern United States from Arizona's Sonoran Desert across New Mexico to west Texas. It generally resides where cholla and saguaro cacti, ocotillo, mesquites, palo verde, and creosote bushes are prevalent. The demeanor of the curve-billed has been described as "shy and rather wild". It is very aggressive in driving out potential threats, whether competitors for food or predators of its chicks.  It has a variety of distinctive songs, and this extensive repertoire of melodies has led it to be known as cuitiacoache (songbird) in Mexico. The curve-billed thrasher is an omnivore. Its diet includes invertebrates such as beetles, moths, butterflies, arachnids, and snails. The elegant trogon (Trogon elegans) (formerly the "coppery-tailed" trogon), is a near passerine bird in the trogon family. Along with the eared quetzal, it is the most poleward-occurring species of trogon in the world, ranging from Guatemala in the south as far north as the upper Gila River in Arizona and New Mexico. The most northerly populations of subspecies ambiguus are partially migratory, and the species is occasionally is found as a vagrant in southeasternmost and western Texas. It is a resident of the lower levels of semi-arid open woodlands and forests. It nests 7–20 ft high in an unlined shallow cavity, usually selecting an old woodpecker hole, with a typical clutch of 2–3 eggs. The Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) formerly known as the bay-winged hawk or dusky hawk, is a medium-large bird of prey that breeds from the southwestern United States south to Chile, central Argentina, and Brazil. The name is derived from the Greek para, meaning beside, near or like, and the Latin buteo, referring to a kind of buzzard; uni meaning once; and cinctus meaning girdled, referring to the white band at the tip of the tail. John James Audubon gave this bird its English name in honor of his ornithological companion, financial supporter, and friend Edward Harris. The Harris's hawk is notable for its behavior of hunting cooperatively in packs consisting of tolerant groups, while other raptors often hunt alone. It is the Harris's hawk's intelligence that leads to its social nature, which results in easier training and has meant that Harris's hawks have become a popular bird for use in falconry. The Mexican jay (Aphelocoma wollweberi) formerly known as the gray-breasted jay, is a New World jay native to the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and Central Plateau of Mexico and parts of the southwestern United States. The Mexican jay is a medium-sized jay with blue upper parts and pale gray underparts. It resembles the western scrub jay but has an unstreaked throat and breast. It feeds largely on acorns and pine nuts, but includes many other plant and animal foods in its diet. It has a cooperative breeding system where the parents are assisted by other birds to raise their young. It is native to the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and Central Plateau of Mexico as well as eastern Arizona, western New Mexico and western Texas in the United States. When he first described the species in 1829, naturalist William John Swainson assigned it to the genus Setophaga — the same genus as that of the American redstart — where it remained for nearly a century and a half, though one naturalist placed it in the Old World flycatcher genus Muscicapa during that time. By the mid 1960s, researchers recommended that it be moved to its current genus, Myioborus, based on various similarities with the other whitestarts. There are two subspecies, which differ only slightly in appearance: M. p. pictus is found from Arizona and New Mexico in the southern United States to Oaxaca and Veracruz in Mexico. Birds in the northern part of the range tend to migrate to the southern parts of the subspecies' range for the winter. M. p. guatemalae, which is found from Chiapas in southern Mexico to northern Nicaragua, has little or no white edging on the tertials and less white on the fourth rectrix of the tail. It is non-migratory. The phainopepla or northern phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) is the most northerly representative of the mainly tropical Central American family Ptiliogonatidae, the silky flycatchers. Its name is from the Greek phain pepla meaning "shining robe" in reference to the male's plumage. The phainopepla is a striking bird, 6.3–7.9 in long with a noticeable crest and a long tail; it is slender, and has an upright posture when it perches. The male is glossy black, and has a white wing patch that is visible when it flies; the female is plain gray and has a lighter gray wing patch. Both sexes have red eyes, but these are more noticeable in the female than the male. The phainopepla ranges as far north as central California with the San Joaquin Valley and southern Utah, and south to central Mexico, the interior Mexican Plateau region; the southern edge of the plateau, the transverse mountains is its non-breeding home. It is found in hot areas, including desert oases, and is readily seen in the deserts of Arizona. The roadrunner (genus Geococcyx), also known as a chaparral bird or chaparral cock, is a fast-running ground cuckoo that has a long tail and a crest. It is found in the southwestern United States and Mexico, usually in the desert. Some have been clocked at 20 miles per hour. The roadrunner is an opportunistic omnivore. Its diet normally consists of insects (such as grasshoppers, crickets, caterpillars, and beetles), small reptiles (such as lizards, collared lizards, and snakes, including rattlesnakes), rodents and small mammals, spiders (including tarantulas), scorpions, centipedes, snails, small birds (and nestlings), eggs, and fruits and seeds like those from prickly pear cactuses and sumacs. The roadrunner forages on the ground and, when hunting, usually runs after prey from under cover. It may leap to catch insects, and commonly batters certain prey against the ground. Tanagers are small to medium-sized birds. The shortest-bodied species, the white-eared conebill, is 3.5 in long and weighs 7 grams, barely smaller than the short-billed honeycreeper. The longest, the magpie tanager is 11 in and weighs 76 grams. The heaviest is the white-capped tanager which weighs .25 pounds and measures about 9.4 in. Both sexes are usually the same size and weight. Tanagers are often brightly colored, but some species are black and white. Birds in their first year are often duller or a different color altogether. Males are typically more brightly colored than females. Most tanagers have short, rounded wings. The shape of the bill seems to be linked to the species' foraging habits. Most tanagers live in pairs or in small groups of three to five individuals. These groups may consist simply of parents and their offspring. Birds may also be seen in single-species or mixed flocks. Many tanagers are thought to have dull songs, though some are elaborate. The vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) is a small passerine bird in the Tyrannidae, or tyrant flycatcher family. Most flycatchers are rather drab, but the vermilion flycatcher is a striking exception. It is a favorite with birders, but is not generally kept in aviculture, as the males tend to lose their vermilion coloration when in captivity. Vermilion flycatchers generally prefer somewhat open areas, and are found in trees or shrubs in savannah, scrub, agricultural areas, riparian woodlands, and desert as well, but usually near water. Their range includes almost all of Mexico; it extends north into the southwestern United States, and south to scattered portions of Central America, parts of northwestern and central South America, and on southwards to central Argentina. The flycatchers feed mostly on insects such as flies, grasshoppers and beetles. These are usually taken in mid-air, after a short sally flight from a perch. It is an opportunistic feeder, and has been observed eating small fish. The woodpeckers are part of the Picidae family, a group of near-passerine birds that also consist of piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in treeless areas, such as rocky hillsides and deserts. The woodpeckers range from highly antisocial solitary species that are aggressive toward other members of their species, to species that live in groups. Group-living species tend to be communal group breeders. A number of species may join mixed-species feeding flocks with other insectivorous birds, although they tend to stay at the edges of these groups. Joining these flocks allows woodpeckers to decrease anti-predator vigilance and increase their feeding rate. Woodpeckers are diurnal, roosting at night inside holes. In most species the roost will become the nest during the breeding season.

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